Thursday, 19 April 2018

A magical wolf, a riddle of faces, a Celtic horse, & the 'Battle Crow' - bod's Ancient British Coins

Ancient British Coin wall plaques from Justbod

 "For about 150 years Britons minted their own tribal coins until the Romans stopped them in AD 43. During this brief period about 100 rulers of a dozen different tribes issued no fewer than 1,000 different coins. After 2,000 years the imaginative imagery of these ancient British coins remains unsurpassed. This was Britain's golden age of daring coin design."  
Chris Rudd - Britain's First Coins

 (This post was first published 7 July 2015 - this is the updated version)


Ancient British Celtic Coins


I have always loved coins, their history and their connection with another time, culture and people. To hold an ancient coin or artefact in your hand is to go on a trip of wonder and imagination - who made it and when, who has held it, what has it bought, what have people done to possess it, how was it lost, and what stories could it tell?

Iron Age Coin David Nash Publishing 2003
Coin of the Atrebates
Reproduced with kind permission


Of all the coins I have ever encountered, Celtic (Iron Age) coins intrigue and enchant me the most. From a culture that never wrote anything down, whose few remaining stories have filtered down to us orally and in their artwork and artefacts, their coins reveal extra layers which give tantalising glimpses into their culture, beliefs, and lives.

Masters of stylistic, abstract, symbolic and surreal art, most of us know Celtic Artwork mainly from the knotwork designs taken from the Illuminated Manuscripts created by the monastic monks, although these were created in Anglo-Saxon times and contain a mix of Celtic, Pictish, Anglo-Saxon and Christian ideas and motifs. The Illuminated Manuscripts are Beautiful and skilful artworks the manuscripts are, but the coins date from a far earlier time, and exhibit a stunning exploration of artistic skills and ideas, a strange glimpse into the Celtic soul - exciting wild, organic, and whimsical.

The first four coins that I have sought to recreate, are all from the British mainland. There is a lot of debate over the use of the term 'Celtic' to describe these peoples. They spoke a Celtic language, and created artefacts that had stylistic links with the artwork found amongst the tribal peoples described as 'Celtic' on the continent. However, there were many differences and a distinctly 'British' style, particularly with regard to their coinage. Nobody in the Ancient World has been recorded as referring to the Ancient Britons as Celts. However, for me, there are enough similarities to link them culturally, and aesthetically.

The first four pieces I created are based on some of our first coins: coins made between 150 BC and 43 AD - over 2000 years ago. I firstly made them by sculpting each coin design individually from sheet metal, and inlaying these into custom-made oak plaques 22 cm². Those original designs are now recreated in smaller, cast versions.

I plan on making more in the future, covering a wider range of the artistic style and diversity of this fascinating period of time in our history, about which we know so very little: 


'The Battle Crow' - BODVOC


Bodvoc celtic coin wall plaque from Justbod


This was the first 'Celtic Coin' plaque that I made - mainly chosen because his name echoes mine, I wanted an example of a 'head,' and I loved the style

Bodvoc issued coins during the second half of the first century BC. Coins of his have been found in the Northern end of the Dobunni territory, which today coincides roughly with the modern counties of Somerset, Bristol and Gloucestershire. From these finds it is currently believed that he ruled their northern territories. The style of head was clearly copied from Tasciovanos, King of the Catuvellauni, and Bodvoc may have been originally of this tribe.
"Bodvoc's name is appropriately combative and means 'battle-crow' - a great name for an invading prince of the Catuvellauni whose tribal name means 'men who excel in battle.' Bodvoc was evidently named after the fearsome war-goddess Badbh of ancient Irish legends. The presence of the letter C at the end of BODVOC on coins indicates that we are unaware of his full name, which may have been Bodvocos, Bodvocnatos 'born of the battle-crow' or Bodvocoveros 'giant of the battle-crow.' We may never know his complete name, but we now know that he was so proud of it that he had it stamped in large Latin letters on his gold quarter staters as well as his gold staters." Elizabeth Cottam of Chris Rudd.
Bodvoc coin copyright Chris Rudd
Courtesy & ©Chris Rudd

The original coin from which my design is based is an excessively rare Boduoc silver unit with currently only three recorded examples in existence.

Bodvoc - oak wall plaque by bod with hand cast inlaid Ancient British Coin Design cold cast in aluminium from an original sculpture by bod and based on a coin issued by Bodvoc 'the battle-crow,' ruler of the Celtic Dobunni tribe, in the last part of the first century BC. Size ~ 16 cm square x 2 cm deep.




"three eyes say this wolf can see in the dark" - WOLF

 

'Norfolk Wolf' Celtic Coin wall plaque from Justbod

A fascinating coin design, packed with a wealth of symbology, it is based on the 'Norfolk Wolf' gold stater, struck by the Iceni tribe, who occupied an area corresponding roughly with the modern-day county of Norfolk. They are, of course, best known for their rebellion under Boudicca.

I used an amalgam of several different coins in the creation of this design (they had all been struck with details missing) to create as full an image as possible.

The original was approximately 1.5 cm in diameter and made of gold. Mine is about 11.5 cm in diameter, and made in bronze (the Justbod budget didn't quite run to gold!) Every detail in all of my metal plaques, has been individually sculpted by hand, using a combination of techniques, and then cold-cast in bronze or aluminium.

"Since medieval times the wolf has had predominately negative associations in Europe and in children's stories is often referred to as 'the big bad wolf.' It wasn't so in ancient times. Because the wolf can see in the dark he symbolised the morning sun and was linked to the Lycian Apollo." Chris Rudd - coin list 124

"Three eyes say this wolf can see in the dark. The fen bird (an avocet?) on his rump says he could be an Iceni cousin of Fenrir 'the fen-dweller.' And his jagged jaws remind us of Skoll, the Norse wolf who swallowed the sun, and his brother Hati who slew the moon. See Rainer Kretz - On the track of the Norfolk Wolf." From Britain's First Coins by Chris Rudd

A bold, wild and strange design to our modern sensibilities, I love this image with its evocative intimations of a world-view so different so different to our own.


Wolf - oak wall plaque by bod with handcrafted inlaid design cold cast in bronze from an original sculpture by bod, based upon an Ancient British Celtic gold coin of the Iceni c. 50-40 BC ('Norfolk Wolf' gold stater) ~16 cm square x 2 cm deep. 

 


A Celtic Horse - CORIEL


Horses were extremely important in Celtic/Iron-Age culture and appear in various forms, mostly highly stylised, on coinage of the period.

Coriel - Ancient Celtic Coin wall plaque from Justbod

The coin upon which this is based was a silver unit of the 'Boar and Horse' type (the reverse side features,unsurprisingly, a boar,) struck by the Corieltauvi tribe (formerly thought to be called Coritani.) They occupied a territory south of the Humber, roughly similar to today's Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and parts of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Rutland and Northamptonshire.
Rather than being a single tribe, they were more like a loose confederation of people with a shared outlook, and their name loosely translates as 'host or army of the broad land or host/army of many rivers.' 
It appears that they offered little resistence to Roman rule and Leicester (Ratae Corieltauvorum - ratae meaning ramparts, implying it was fortified) fell to the Romans in AD44. 

I love this piece. Although there are some incredible examples of stylised horses to pick from, amongst the many ancient British coins that have been recovered, I love the simplicity of this and the beauty of the horse design. It is one of my favourites.

Coriel - oak wall plaque by bod with handcrafted inlaid Ancient British Celtic Coin design cold cast in aluminium from an original sculpture by bod and based upon a coin struck by the Corieltauvi tribe c. 55-45 BC. Size ~16 cm square x 2 cm deep.  


 


A Riddle of Faces - TASCIO

 

Tascio - Ancient British Celtic Coin wall plaque by Justbod

 

Tasciovanos was the King of the Catuvellauni tribe in the South East who occupied the territory currently comprising of Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire and southern Cambridgeshire, with their centre based around the modern town of St Albans. His son was called Cymbeline (Cunobelin.)

Starting around 20 BC Tasciovanus minted gold, silver and copper coins and was the first King to issue inscribed Celtic coins marked with the name of Verulamium (Roman City of St Albans.)

My design is based on a very rare gold stater of his, considered by many to be one of the finest examples of Celtic decorative art. It also displays a whimsical and humorous side, as it features several 'hidden faces.' Chris Rudd, dealer in ancient British coins, says in his literature, that there are no less than six. He also mentions a "stylised badger face with corn-ear stripes is a visual pun on the King's name (Tasciovanus) 'killer of badgers.'"
"A hidden face on an ancient British stater has eluded numismatists for two hundred years. Tasciovanus hid the face on his staters and it took me seven years of owning one of them to see it. Celtic artists liked to hide faces on their artwork. They had a fine appreciation for the surreal. They loved now-you-see-it-now-you-don't images. The art tied in with their religion. Things are not what they seem. Behind everyday scenes lurk unseen forces manipulating the action." Robert Van Arsdell
Hidden Faces coin copyright Chris Rudd
Courtesy & ©Chris Rudd

How many faces can you see?

I loved making this design, and its sense of humour, and, as I do with all of the work I create, thinking about the unknown artist who created the die for the original.


Tascio - oak wall plaque by bod with handcrafted inlaid Ancient British Celtic design cold cast in bronze from an original sculpture by bod and based upon a gold coin of Tascio vanos of the Catuvellauni c. 20 BC - 10 AD ('Hidden Faces' gold stater) ~ 16 cm square x 2 cm deep. 

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More designs...

The more I find out about Celtic / Iron-Age coins, the more interesting it becomes. I'm sure that these won't be the last examples that I make, as I already have several others in mind.

If you are interested in finding out more about this fascinating subject, please see the 'sources and further information' section at the bottom of this article. I can particularly recommend the books.

Thank you for reading!

bod
Justbod Team 


Visit our main site & shop

Artwork, carvings & sculptures
~ inspired by history and nature ~ 

Celtic, Viking & Mythical Wall Plaques by Justbod
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  You might also be interested in:

bod's Runestone, Grettir's Saga and a Matter Of Trust

or

Behold the Specklebeast...

   
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Anglo Saxon Insular Art Zoomorphic Sculpted Wall Plaque from Justbod
The Specklebeast


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Sources and further information:

Books:
Britain's First Coins: Chris Rudd
Celtic Coinage in Britain: Philip de Jersey
Ancient Celtic Coin Art: Simon Lilly
Links:
 
 

Thursday, 18 January 2018

The Folklore, Myths and Legends of Lake Gormire

Gormire Lake North Yorkshire

Nestling in a dense wooded bowl at the base of Sutton Bank, North Yorkshire - 'one of the most spectacular inland cliffs anywhere in Britain;' and in the midst of an ancient landscape, steeped in folklore, myth and legend, lies the mysterious and brooding Gormire Lake, a beautiful natural body of water.

Also known as White Mere, Lake Gormire or simply Gormire, it was formed over 20,000 years ago from the great glacial melt waters of the last ice age and is one of only four natural lakes in Yorkshire.


Gormire Lake North Yorkshire
Gormire Lake North Yorkshire


"A lake is the landscape's most beautiful and expressive feature. It is earth's eye; looking into which the beholder measures the depth of his own nature."

~ Henry David Thoreau ~

Surrounded by dense woodland and with its strange beguiling beauty, inky-dark, and completely calm water, Lake Gormire has inspired numerous myths and legends over the years. One myth claims it is bottomless, perhaps inspired by its dark and calm waters which lie untroubled by any visible water flowing in or out of the lake. (The modern theory is that Gormire is fed by an underground spring and possibly drains through limestone channels below.) 

Perhaps in the past they suspected something of these subterranean channels as there are two pieces of similar folklore that hint at them:


A Goose, a Witch, Earthquakes, and a Race with the Devil: Folklore of Gormire


A witch called Abigail Craister, who normally dwelt in a cave on Black Hambleton, is said to have escaped her pursuers by leaping from Whitestone Cliff into the deep waters of Gormire Lake below. She then emerged sometime later from a sinkhole about nine miles away. To this day she is still thought to haunt the Lake (for some unknown reason) and can oft be seen riding her broomstick over nearby Kilburn.

A very similar piece of folklore involves a goose who flew into the lake and promptly vanished, to reemerge twelve miles away, and completely featherless, at Kirbymoorside.

Incidentally, and to continue the bird theme, Wikipedia translates the name Gormire as 'flithy swamp,' which is both unromantic and would not induce anyone to want to visit. I much prefer an earlier interpretation from Whellan's 1859 'History and Topography of the City Of York and the North Riding of Yorkshire: Vol II' (they did so love short snappy book titles in the 19th c.!) which states the etymology as deriving from the "gor or moor cock, a wild fowl peculiar to these northern parts." Even if this were incorrect, it feels better, as Gormire is a haven for many different wild birds.


Ducks and swan Gormire Lake North Yorkshire
Ducks & a swan brave sudden teleportation, earthquakes, or more on Gormire 

Whellan's topography also mentions an incident on the 17th March 1755 when many people reported loud and strange noises from Whitestone Cliff, including:

"a tremendous roaring, like the explosion of many cannons, proceeding from the cliff.." two local men then witnessed a piece of rock 4-5 yards wide, fly off from the top of the crag, and then "...a few hours afterward a part of the same rock, 15 yards in thickness, 30 high and from 60 to 70 in breadth, was torn off and hurled into the valley, with a report like the eruption of a volcano. The cause of this alarming phenomena, which was mistaken for an earthquake, was the lodgment of a large quantity of snow and rain in a cavity of the rock, which rent in pieces the solid stone and produced those frightful convulsions, to the no small terror of the villagers."

Perhaps it was incidences like this that led to yet another piece of local legend:

"The village oracles relate that this awful abyss [Gormire Lake] was produced by a tremendous earthquake, which ingulphed a populous town and its secure inhabitants, in a moment of unexpected calamity, leaving behind it a body of waters unfathomable and bottomless. From the same espectable authority, it is asserted, that the tops of houses, and the desolate chimneys are sometimes visible to the astonished eyes of the stranger, when embarked on its mysterious surface...." - Alfred E. Hargrove 1843

From some angles Lake Gormire does have an almost apocalyptic feel, looking a little like the flooded caldera of some ancient (mini) volcano.



Gormire Lake North Yorkshire
Gormire Lake North Yorkshire

Gormire Lake North Yorkshire
Gormire Lake North Yorkshire

One of the best stories surrounding Lake Gormire, however, is related to why Whitestone Cliff is also known as White Mare Cliff, why you might sometimes hear the ghostly thundering of hooves, and why the dark and bottomless Lake is believed by some to be an entrance to hell...

This account is taken from a poem by the Rev. Richard Abbay who tells the story 'with great force, and in most racy verse,' in Rev Thomas Parkinson's collected works of 1889.

It is a tale of jealousy, trickery, revenge, and the devil:

It is told that 'once upon a time' there lived an Abbot of nearby Rievaux Abbey, who was more devoted to secular things than to his sacred work. Among his greatest treasures was a beautiful white, Arab mare, of great beauty and swiftness: 

"In a stall at the back of the Abbey there stood
A mare of the purest of Arab blood,
Bought from a distant land and given
By a knight to the abbot to aid him to heaven..."

However, this mare was also secretly coveted by by the local knight of Helmsley, Sir Harry de Scriven, described by Rev. Abbay:

"Sir Harry came of old Yorkshire stock.
The rarest chip of a rare old block;
The huntingest squire
In the huntingest shire
His nerve never failed, his limbs would not tire;
A rollicking son of a rollicking sire."


Walking path on Sutton Bank North Yorkshire
Path on Sutton Bank North Yorkshire

One autumn evening, when Sir Harry was returning from the chase, he called into an inn on the plain of Black Hambleton for respite, and there he came across the Abbot, whom he joined. After sometime of eating and drinking way too much, Sir Harry hit upon an idea and claimed that he had a message for the Abbot that he had only just remembered to deliver, concerning a local yeoman farmer who was sore ill and in need of the Abbot to call and pray for him before it was too late. Sir Harry suggested that the Abbot use his horse, Nightwind, as he was stronger and faster than the white mare, and would better weather the storm that was brewing. The Abbot was quite drunk by now, didn't perceive anything untoward, and agreed. 

Sir Harry also offered to accompany him part of the journey on the white mare, to show him the way. However, as they set off into the teeth of the storm, their rivalry overcame them and they began to race. 

"Then they mounted in haste, and the frolic begun;
The mare, like her rider, was full of the fun,
She capered and danced
Curvetted and pranced,
And thought to herself, "There's a race to be run."
With a touch of the spur and jerk of the rein,
Sir Harry and she tore over the plain;"

Unfortunately, Nightwind began to pull ahead and Sir Harry became desperate, thrashing the white mare for all he was worth, and forgetting the terrain around him. Suddenly, and far too late for his drink-sodden reflexes, he saw the cliff edge just before him. 

"...that terrible spot where Hambleton Heath
Breaks off in a cliff to the valley beneath;
Eight hundred feet sheer by plummet-line sounded,
And nought but some heather the precipice bounded.
'Tis a terrible cliff, e'en the stoutest grow pale,
As they stand on the brink and look down the vale.

To the edge of this cliff race blindly the pair;
Too late ! they are over ! they gallop in air !"

However, as poor Sir Harry, and the white mare, plummet to their deaths on the sharp rocks below, Sir Harry hears a chilling laugh and looks above him to see:


"Far over his head old Nightwind was flying;
And a long pointed tail o'er his haunches was flowing;
Two horns on the head of the abbot were growing;
And his feet cleft in twin in the stirrups were showing;
And a very harsh voice in jubilant tones
Cried, "Sir Harry de Scriven, beware of the stones,
But a novice, like you must expect broken bones;
If you must play a trick,
Don't try on old Nick
I'll see you below when I visit the sick."

This was the last thing Sir Harry ever saw, as he and the white mare dashed onto the sharp and unforgiving rocks. Meanwhile the horned and laughing Abbot and Nightwind flew on into Gormire, sending up clouds of steam, the waters of the lake "once sparkling and bright, To the blackness of ink were changed in that night."


Whitestone or White Mare Cliff
Whitestone or White Mare Cliff

The Rev Abbay also asserts that "the cliff where the white mare met such disaster Was bleached suddenly white as the lawn of her master." (it's perhaps weathered to a slightly more off-white now!

It is said that on dark nights you can still sometimes see the ghost of Sir Harry and the white mare falling over White Mare Cliff, and then melting into thin air.....

A fearsome and cautionary tale indeed!  


Other Nearby Points Of Interest


The landscape around Gormire has been settled for many thousands of years, with lots of local history, myth and legend.

Above Gormire, lies the very welcoming Sutton Bank Visitor Centre, with lots of information on the local history, natural history, walks and cycle paths.

Within easy access lie the Kilburn White Horse hill figure, as well as a viewpoint for the 'finest view in England,' according to the writer, James Herriot: an amazing panorama of Northern England.


Signpost to the finest view in England, Sutton Bank, Yorkshire
You're can't fail to want to follow the sign....

From this viewpoint you can also see the large and impressive Iron Age Promontory hillfort of Roulston Scar just nearby. The largest of its kind in the north of England, and also one of the biggest in Britain, it was built around 400 BC. It covers an area of approximately 60 acres, and was defended by a perimeter 1.3 miles long.


Roulston Scar and Hood Hill North Yorkshire
Just part of the 'finest view:' Roulston Scar (left) and Hood Hill (right)

Roulston Scar cliff North Yorkshire
The cliff below Roulston Scar - the plateau is now a glider airfield

Just below it, legend tells of a narrow fissure part-way down the rock face, leading into a cave called the Devil's Parlour. Climb down at midnight, offer up an incantation whilst wolking around in a circle three times and 'owd Nick' himself will appear to you!

Just opposite Roulston Scar is the distinctive Hood Hill. Thickly forested now, there are the remains of a motte and bailey castle on the summit. Built in 1086 by a henchman of William the Conqueror: Robert de Stuteville.


Hood Hill North Yorkshire
Hood Hill 

Somewhere on the hill is also a stone dropped by the devil when he was flying over. Angry that he had dropped it, he fly down and stood on the stone, leaving his footprint behind, where it remains to this day...

Visiting Lake Gormire


As mentioned above, the visitor centre at Sutton Bank has lots of information on local walks. When we visited, we choose a longer walk that started in the Kilburn White Horse car park, ascended to the excellent path at the top of Sutton Bank and then down to the lake through the beautiful Garbutt Woods, where we managed to get lost for quite some time, whilst also battling heavy rain.


Inside Garbutt Wood, North Yorkshire
Inside Garbutt Wood

The lake itself is beautiful, and tranquil. Very popular with wild swimmers, it feels like a haven from the outside world, although it is also possible to understand how the many myths have developed, as it has a distinct 'otherworld' quality.


Gormire Lake, North Yorkshire
Gormire Lake, North Yorkshire

I spent a certain amount of time there imagining the relationship that the Iron Age inhabitants of Roulston Scar might have had with Gormire. It seems very likely to me that it would have been important to them, perhaps a place of sanctity and ritual, and, perhaps a place where sacrificial items were deposited in the water, as the Iron Age peoples were wont to do. 


Gormire Lake, North Yorkshire
Gormire Lake, North Yorkshire

Following this line of thought further, I got quite excited and started to fantasize about buying the lake and learning underwater archaeology. I'm afraid to say, that this then developed into a major Howard-Carter-Tutankhamun-esque fantasy where I was retrieving wheel-barrow loads of gold on a daily basis...

Gormire Lake, North Yorkshire
Gormire Lake: a timeless quality

I have since done a little research to see if anything has ever been found there, but have not found any information. If any one knows more about any discoveries here, please let me know. It would seem to be an obvious site for depositing ritual items.

The whole area is well worth a visit, whether walking, cycling, in the car, or wild swimming...just keep a weather eye out for Old Nick....

Thanks for reading

bod

Justbod Team


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Sources and Further Information:


Offline

A brief description of public interest in the county of York, within twenty-six miles of the city : by Alfred E. Hargrove 1843
History and Topography of the City of York and The North Riding of Yorkshire Vol II : by T. Whellan and Co. 1857
Yorkshire legends and traditions, as told by her ancient chroniclers, her poets and journalists : by Rev. Thomas Parkinson 1889
Bulmer's History and Directory of North Yorkshire 1890
Folklore of Yorkshire : by Kai Roberts 2013
Sutton Bank Public Information Boards and Leaflets

Online

Gormire Lake - Wikipedia
Sutton Bank Visitor Centre
Kilburn White Horse - Justbod Post
Sutton Bank and Roulston Scar - Wikipedia
Roulston Scar - Historic England
Hood Hill Castle - Historic England
Hood Hill Stone - Northern Antiquarian